Planning A Video Production

Did you ever end up on a project that required video and somehow you became the default expert? That’s what happened to me early in my career. At first, it was a bit unnerving. But like any devout eLearning practitioner, I just pretended I knew what I was doing and got on with things.

If you suddenly find yourself responsible for a complex video production—you know, more than sitting in front of your web cam—you’ll need to do some major planning. Here are some of the key things you’ll have to consider, plan for and get done.


You will need an approved script prepared in a standard format and distributed to the talent in time for them to memorize their parts. If you are a designer and writer, this is a great opportunity to learn the craft of scriptwriting. You’ll need to learn how to show rather than tell and you’ll need to know the effect that varied camera shots can have on your script. The alternative is to hire a scriptwriter.

From a practical standpoint, training videos typically use the two-column (audio and video) type of format with the narration, sound effects and music in one column and visuals in the other. Dramatizations often use the full-page screenplay format. Just use the one that works best for communicating your ideas and for future planning.

Locations or Sets

Every scene will need an appropriate location and you’ll need to hunt these down. You might find suitable locations in your office that only require a few props or you might choose to film in a public area. You may need written permission to set up and implement a video production outside of a studio, so be sure to have the approval forms on hand. Alternately, you can hire a video production house and use one of their studios where they will create the sets. This nearly guarantees you’ll have an interruption-free location where you can really focus.

Production Planning

There are several production documents that are more or less required for a multiple-scene and multiple-day video production. Large productions require numerous documents, but you can probably get by with these three for smaller industrial/training videos.

  • Shot List: One shot is a continuous segment of footage from one camera angle. You’ll need to create a list of all the shots that need to be recorded. The video crew will need the shot list.
  • Shooting Script: This is a working script that groups together all the scenes from the same location so they can be shot at the same time. The script will be shot out of sequence, according to location, which is the most efficient way to shoot video or film. The video crew will also need this script.
  • Call Sheet: The talent will need a list of all the scenes to be shot, all of the personnel required for each scene and the date and time they will be needed. Some people include the props and equipment required for each scene too.


One of the best ways to identify actors for your production is to have auditions. You can also browse talent sites with video samples online. The highest paid and often most professional actors are part of the Screen Actors Guild (SAG) in the US. I assume other countries have similar organizations. You’ll also find talented actors who choose to go nonunion, so don’t overlook them. If you are going low budget, you can often cull a cast from acting students at a local college. Don’t forget to have the selected talent sign release forms that give you the rights to use them in the video.

At all costs, try to avoid anyone untrained in acting, including your client’s employees and friends. Unless they have some great talent that was previously hidden, using untrained actors in training videos can really put the final nail in the coffin.

Video Crew

Okay let’s face it. Most budgets for training videos are not soaring through the roof. I’ve directed video productions with one crew member: a camera person. Ideally, however, you’ll be able to afford the following:

  • Director: If you are the person responsible for the video, you might likely become the default director. Forget the director’s chair, you’ll probably be standing up and running around half the time.
  • Videographer: The videographer operates the camera. For small or low-budget video productions, you will have a videographer who also mixes the audio. Become best friends with this person, as he or she can help you with the direction. Don’t hesitate to discuss each shot and see how it will look through the camera.
  • Sound Technician or Audio Mixer: If you can afford a separate person to record, mix and monitor sound, it’s worth the cost. A sound engineer is not just responsible for recording sound. He or she will help to choose the best microphones for the scene and will monitor the audio levels closely with headphones. If there is outside interference, the sound person will alert the director to go for another take.
  • Script Supervisor: I’m not sure what the official term for this person is, but you always need someone to take production notes. This person needs to be sure there is continuity when shooting from one day to the next. He or she will take note that the actor in Scene 12 is wearing a blue shirt on Monday and needs that same shirt on Wednesday for a related scene. The script supervisor can also work with the videographer to log the time code for each shot.

Instructional Crew

Videos that have a training focus will need one or two people on hand who are focusing on content and instructional strategies.

  • Instructional Designer: Most training videos require the instructional designer to be present to ensure that key points are implemented correctly. There are often a barrage of unforeseen issues and questions that arise (imagine that!) and only someone familiar with the content and purpose of the scene can answer them. If the director and instructional designer are the same person, you’ve got it covered.
  • SME: It’s good to have the subject matter expert on hand when you are communicating technical or complex topics.

Post-production Work

Everything done to the video after the recording is considered the post-production work. This includes editing, voiceovers, special effects and conversion to various formats. You’ll need to plan who will do this type of work. If you don’t have the capabilities in-house, you’ll need to hire a video studio to do the post-production work. The producer of the video (which may be you) may need to sit with the editor to identify how sequences should be assembled.

I wish I’d had a list like this when I became the default video expert. Hopefully, you’ll be more prepared than I was if the “video expert” role lands in your lap.

Are there other things you plan for in a training video production? If so, please add them below.

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  1. Kevin Sio says

    Do you have a resource for a good, easy to use 2 column script? I get some crazy looking layouts from the mostly non-professional writers I work with. I could make the format available to them or re-format their scripts myself.


  2. Connie Malamed says

    Hi Kevin,
    I just make a two-column table (one for video and one for audio) in Word and write each sound byte in one row. I’m sorry I can’t recommend a script-writing tool, but if any readers out there know of one, please let us know.

  3. Ryan says

    Can you mention that sites like offer free screenwriting software? We’ve been trying to make it easy to write scripts now for over 3 years!



  4. Connie Malamed says

    Thanks very much for alerting us to your scripting software, Ryan. I wasn’t aware of it and will be sure to check it out. Normally, there is a free trial but Ryan has offered a completely free registration to the eLearning Coach readers. Use this url: and scroll down for the Freebie Registration.


  5. PinnyPed says

    Or, you can hire a Senior Instructional Designer with an M.S. and 10 years experience who happens to have a background in producing/directing and scriptwriting educational films and broadcast video. If you need her, her email is

  6. Rupinder Kaur says

    Hi Connie

    Just subscribed to your column. Very informative.Do you think a new instructional designer would benefit from a 1 day video production boot camp?


  7. Connie Malamed says

    Hi Rupinder,
    If you have a lot of video to shoot, then yes. On small video shoots, often times the job of directing has fallen to me as the person with the vision. I was glad I understood the production process. Also, if you are working on a small budget, you might be required to shoot video and do the editing, so again this could be helpful. If you have a large budget and can hire a videographer or studio, it will let you know what is possible when working with video professionals.

  8. Elaine says

    Hi Connie,

    I’m putting together a training plan for a course which requires a lot of procedural videos. Chapman provides the time ratio for development time: instructional hour and I’d like to provide a bit more detail breaking down the video production time. Do you have an estimate or breakdown on the amount of time video production (all steps) takes for a fifteen minute video?


  9. Connie Malamed says

    I think it could take several hours, maybe four, but it is dependent on so many other things. I’d like to hear what other people say. There’s the recording and if you need a lot of takes that can take awhile, so I usually schedule the studio for an hour for a short recording. If you’re using a set and a teleprompter it takes time to get that right. There’s also make-up and hair adjustments.

    Then for post-production, there’s editing. This is often double what you use in recording time. If you are adding B-roll, adding text, doing transitions or effects, you can add more time too. Also, the number of cameras views that need to get integrated will affect the time.

    So that’s my best guess, but I can’t promise that I’m right! I think it’s an interesting question. I might ask my eLearning Coach Facebook Group what they think and see how different the estimates are.


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